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Future babies with two fathers..!!

Thursday, December 16, 2010

Recently an article was published by the Science daily. Which explains a research finding by reproductive scientists in Texas, led by Dr. Richard R. Behringer at the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center.


They produced some female as well as male mice, without involving the mother chromosomes. 
The experiment was carried out among two generations.Before going to the details let me tell you some facts about our birth.
The chromosomes which is provided by both father and mother will decide the gender of the child. Whether it is female or male. There are X and Y chromosomes. The one with XY will be the male and the other one with XX or XO (in human it is rare and the one will be infertile). So always the Y will be contributed by the male, that is the male chromosomes  decide the child's sex. So usaually the one pair of X will come from the mother and either X or Y chromosome from the father,that is Figure Number 1
Figure Number 1



Now what the current researcher did is with out having any X chromosomes from the mother, they reproduced male as well as female offspring from the male chromosomes. That is both the X as well as Y they took from two males. So now we can move to the experiment.


First stage:

The scientists manipulated fibroblasts(the one which produce extracellular matrix and collagen and from there the stem cells can arise) from a male (XY) mouse fetus to produce an induced pluripotent stem cell(iPS). About 1% of these iPS cell colonies grown from this XY cell line spontaneously lose Y and become XO.This iPS with XO chromosomes will inject to the blastocytes (Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg. Inside the intact zona pellucida, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.;Undifferentiated embryonic cells, a term mostly used in foreign literature.)from a donor female mice.The treated blastocytes further transplanted to surrogate mothers (carrier of implanted embryo). They gave birth to female XO/XX chimeras(animals that have two or more different populations of genetically distinct cells) having one X chromosome from the original male mouse fibroblast.


Second stage:
They mate the female chimeras(XX,)with a normal male mouse(XY). Then they got female and male mice with both X and Y chromosomes from the male mice. That is,                Figure Number 2





Through the words of the scientists:


The achievement of two-father offspring in a species of mammal could be a step toward preserving endangered species, improving livestock breeds, and advancing human assisted reproductive technology (ART). It also opens the provocative possibility of same-sex couples having their own genetic children, the researchers note.



According to the authors, "Our study exploits iPS cell technologies to combine the alleles from two males to generate male and female progeny, i.e. a new form of mammalian reproduction."
The technique described in this study could be applied to agriculturally important animal species to combine desirable genetic traits from two males without having to outcross to females with diverse traits.
Danger behind it (a sort of male domination):
"It is also possible that one male could produce both oocytes and sperm for self-fertilization to generate male and female progeny," the scientists point out. Such a technique could be valuable for preserving species when no females remain.
Future:
In the future, it may also be possible to generate human oocytes from male iPS cells in vitro. Used in conjunction with in vitro fertilization, this would eliminate the need for female XO/XX chimeras, although a surrogate mother would still be needed to carry the two-father pregnancy to term.
Using a variation of the iPS technique, the researchers say "it may also be possible to generate sperm from a female donor and produce viable male and female progeny with two mothers."
The authors also caution that the "generation of human iPS cells still requires significant refinements prior to their use for therapeutic purposes."







For the original article please click the following link:

http://news.yahoo.com/s/livescience/20101213/sc_livescience/mousebabyihavetwodaddies;_ylt=Ama96aJN_8OBNZEbYHcE2nwPLBIF;_ylu=X3oDMTM3bm1nNGVuBGFzc2V0A2xpdmVzY2llbmNlLzIwMTAxMjEzL21vdXNlYmFieWloYXZldHdvZGFkZGllcwRwb3MDMTYEc2VjA3luX2FydGlj

Drink water and loose your weight.

Saturday, December 11, 2010

If you fail to take in enough water each day, your body thinks that it is entering a period of drought. As a result, your body reacts by storing as much water as possible to get through this drought. This extra, stored water leaves you looking and feeling bloated. Therefore, you must drink water to lose weight. The extra water signals your body that the drought is over. Your body will cease to hold excess water in reserve. 
Water is essential for proper kidney function. If your kidneys are functioning at a sub-optimal level, it receives assistance from your liver.

One of the liver's functions is to metabolize fat. Therefore, when you liver is lending a hand to your kidneys, your fat metabolism process is less efficient, and therefore, less productive.
Additionally, the extra water you drink water to lose weight acts as an extremely effective appetite suppressant. This is because your stomach will fill with water, leaving less room for food, and causing you to feel full sooner with less food. Less food generally means less calories. And less calories can help make it easier to be in a state of calorie deficit.
Over weight people need more water than thin people. Larger people have larger metabolic loads. Since we know that water is the key to fat metabolism... it follows that the over weight person needs more water to metabolize excess fat.
Water helps to maintain proper muscle tone... which in turn, aids proper muscle contraction and prevents dehydration. It also helps to prevent the sagging skin that usually follows weight loss. Shrinking cells are buoyed by water which plums the skin and leaves it clear, healthy and resilient.
Water helps rid the body of waste. During weight loss, the body has more waste to get rid of, and all that metabolized fat must be shed.
The colon is a primary internal water source. When the body gets too little water, it siphons what it needs from internal sources. Result? Constipation. But when a person drinks enough water... normal bowel function will return.

It is commonly recommended that people drink between 8 and 10 glasses of water per day. This is a good starting point.
But the answer is that it depends. As with most things, the more you weigh, the more water you need.
A table which shows a rough calculation of amount of water versus the body weight.



Lean Body  Mass in Kg
Water per Day
45  Kg
1.50 L
55  Kg
1.75 L
70  Kg
2 L
80  Kg
2.5 L
90  Kg
3 L
100  Kg
3 L
115  Kg
3.5 L
125  Kg
3.8 L
135  Kg
4 L






















So in summary,


The body will not function properly without enough water and cannot metabolize stored fat efficiently.
It may seem strange, but to get rid of excess water... You must drink more water!


Yours

The best gift ever, one can give to his lover is a cervical cancer injection..!!

Thursday, December 9, 2010

Cervical cancer is the second most common malignancy in women worldwide, and it remains a leading cause of cancer-related death for women in developing countries. According to HPV each year worldwide almost 5,10,000 cases are reporting. The number itself shows the impact of the disease in the present world.
Causes
Human papillomavirus

HPV is a heterogeneous group of viruses that contain closed circular double-stranded DNA. The viral genome encodes 6 early open reading frame proteins (ie, E1, E2, E3, E4, E6, E7), which function as regulatory proteins, and 2 late open reading frame proteins (ie, L1, L2), which make up the viral capsid.

To date, 77 different genotypes of HPV have been identified and cloned, among which, types 6, 11, 16, 18, 26, 31, 33, 35, 39, 42, 43, 44, 45, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 58, 59, 66, and 68 have the propensity to infect anogenital tissues.
HPV infections are very common. It usually passes from one person to another through sexual contact. HPV can cause changes to cells in the cervix. If the changes are found clearly, cervical cancer can be prevented by removing or killing the changed cells before they become cancer cells.
Stages
The stage is based on where cancer is found. These are the stages of invasive cervical cancer:
·         Stage I: The tumor has invaded the cervix beneath the top layer of cells. Cancer cells are found only in the cervix.
·         Stage II: The tumor extends to the upper part of the vagina. It may extend beyond the cervix into nearby tissues toward the pelvic wall (the lining of the part of the body between the hips). The tumor does not invade the lower third of the vagina or the pelvic wall.
·         Stage III: The tumor extends to the lower part of the vagina. It may also have invaded the pelvic wall. If the tumor blocks the flow of urine, one or both kidneys may not be working well.
·         Stage IV: The tumor invades the bladder or rectum. Or the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
·         Recurrent cancer: The cancer was treated, but has returned after a period of time during which it could not be detected. The cancer may show up again in the cervix or in other parts of the body.
Symptoms
1.    Abnormal Vaginal bleeding
§  Bleeding occurs between regular menstrual periods
§  Bleeding after sexual intercourse
§  Menstrual period that last longer and are heavier than before
§  Bleeding after going through menopause
2.    Increased vaginal discharge
§  Pelvic pain
§  Pain during sex
If you feel these symptoms better you can consult a doctor immediately and do the tests.
Detection and treatments
1.        Colposcopy: The doctor uses a colposcope to look at the cervix. The colposcope combines a bright light with a magnifying lens to make tissue easier to see. It is not inserted into the vagina. A colposcopy is usually done in the doctor's office or clinic.
2.        Biopsy: Most women have tissue removed by providing with local anesthesia. A pathologist checks the tissue under a microscope for abnormal cells.
a)       Punch biopsy: The doctor uses a sharp tool to pinch off small samples of cervical tissue.
b)       LEEP: The doctor uses an electric wire loop to slice off a thin, round piece of cervical tissue.
c)       Endocervical curettage: The doctor uses a curette (a small, spoon-shaped instrument) to scrape a small sample of tissue from the cervix. Some doctors may use a thin, soft brush instead of a curette.
d)       Conization: The doctor removes a cone-shaped sample of tissue. A conization, or cone biopsy, lets the pathologist see if abnormal cells are in the tissue beneath the surface of the cervix. The doctor may do this test in the hospital under general anesthesia.

Removing tissue from the cervix may cause some bleeding or other discharge. The area usually heals quickly. Some women also feel some pain similar to menstrual cramps.

You have to undergo regular Pep tests (cervical smear preparation). It is not painful. The nurse will take the scrapes of a sample of cells from the Cervix. If you get an abnormal Pap test then you have to do the test for HPV infection. If both are positive then you have to undergo radiation therapy and chemotherapy.

How to avoid the chance of infection?

Now we can prevent the chance of infection of the virus by taking cervical cancer vaccine. The common vaccines in use are Gardaril and Cervarix. There is a series of injections over a six month period. The second one, two months after the first, followed four months later by the third dose. This series injection will help the maintenance of the antibody. The recent study shows that each dose increase the antibody level in the woman’s body.

At present there is a decline in the number of cases of cervical cancer due to the implementation of cervical cancer vaccine. It is given usually to the girls in the age group between 11 and 13. That is before their reproductive life. It is proved that the vaccine is effective in sexually active women age 26 or younger, some of whom had already been infected with one or more types of HPV. Even after vaccination you should undergo Pap tests regularly to check the complete absence of the disease. Even though it is using commonly there are some side effects too. Mostly it seen as minor but in some women it may leads to the paralysis of the body.


For Human papillomavirus infection photos: please visit,





So I will request all the women to take a cervical cancer vaccination so that you can avoid the chance of getting an infection which leads to the cervical cancer.

Please make sure that you have taken the injection before you enter into your sexual life. Please contact the best doctor in your area and follow the instructions.

Remember “prevention is better than cure”.

                        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cervical_cancer



Yours

Hematophobia: My student's fear of Blood..?

Saturday, December 4, 2010

One day during our practical session I was just showing how to pipette out blood for some experiments. I was doing mouth pipetting as there is no other equipments to do the other way. At the mouth of pipette I used a gauze. Then I told the students that they should practice this for their examination purpose. Then they just asked how they will do mouth pipetting. They are afraid of getting infection from the pipette. Some students even asked can we get artificial blood to do the practicals. Actually that question stuck in my mind and I realized the worst part of the current practical sessions for the students.
The governments of the countries especially under the threat of AIDS and other infectious diseases should undertake a mission to avoid the mouth pipetting. They should put some rules strictly to stop these type of old practices. The worries of the students were worthy. Their doubts were correct. There is a chance of infection through the mouth pipetting.
Even though these medical students will deal with the blood of different types of patients in the future, there should be some ways to replace the use of natural blood in the practicals during their educational period to avoid such dilemma.
All of you know that hemoglobin estimation, RBC and WBC count, clotting time, ESR we use the blood. During practical sessions we can not take blood from each persons to do the experiments individually. Usually we will take from one person and make others to do with it. There is the problem. We do not know whether the person is having any infections in the blood. Most of the students are afraid of doing mouth pipetting because they afraid if any increase in the pressure they are applying on the pipette there is chance of entering blood into their mouth. Even the student are not ready to be a subject that they are afraid of the syringe we use. They are not sure it is a sterilized one, even though it is packed tightly. Teachers who are taking practical session will face such problem every time in such countries.
So one of the solution is the use of artificial blood instead of using the natural blood. But as the cost is high that an institutional laboratory can not afford it. Artificial hemoglobins, artificial RBCs are synthesized recently and they are trying to make it available to the common man. Once it get popularized we can hope that the cost also will decrease. Another thing we can do is the use of sterilized blood from blood bank. Rather we can show the students the animations of the practical procedures using a projector. Along with all these we can keep some permanent slides for RBC and WBC and can show them how they look when we observe under the microscope. The best and convenient method is using bulb to apply the pressure on the pipette.
I think this is an important issue among the medical students. If they are not comfortable with their methods of studies, it will automatically affect their standard of education as well as the grades. A student should get the freedom of study. If he/ she has a fear, that will make them upset and will lead to a fall in the concentration on studies. The worries of getting an infection from the lab equipments will make them an introvert. They will just hide from their duties as a student. The only solution to solve this problem is to study the defects of the current methods and strictly adopt a student friendly method of study so that he/ she can do whatever the practicals with out any fear and with full confidence.






Yours

World AIDS Day (1 December): Young people get the message

Wednesday, December 1, 2010



World AIDS Day 2010 brings news of progress. A report from the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) shows that rates of new HIV infections are falling or stabilizing in some countries, most notably among young people aged 15–24.

Among young people in 15 of the countries most severely affected by the epidemic, the rate of new HIV infections has fallen by more than 25% thanks to safer behaviours and practices, including delayed sexual debut, partner reduction and increased condom use. 
Education is an important factor in this development, indicates Irina Bokova, Director-General of UNESCO in her World AIDS Day message. HIV infection rates are halved among those who finish primary school, while targeted HIV and AIDS prevention education builds knowledge and positive attitudes among young people.  
However, there is still a long way to go before the progress is universal or equal. In many countries, women face their greatest risk of infection before the age of 25. 
World AIDS Day events around the world include parades, theatre, art exhibitions conferences and awareness-raising campaigns. In UNESCO Headquarters, an exhibition of photos and texts shows students and teachers speaking out about HIV in Africa. A consultation on the needs of young people living with HIV will follow on 7-9 December.

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